Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP), or ‘Hipping’, is the simultaneous application of heat and high pressure to materials. This process is ideal to improve the characteristics of your additive manufactured product by removing the porosity up to 100%.
Today, this process is already used in the improvement of additive manufactured products. Following Hipping, the result is elimination of internal voids (i.e. porosity) and improved microstructure, leading to hugely improved mechanical properties. HIP can be applied to a large range of alloys, including titanium, steels, aluminum, copper, and magnesium.
A HIP unit consists of a high temperature furnace enclosed within a pressure vessel. Components are heated under a uniform, isostatic pressure of inert Argon gas. When components are treated with HIP, the simultaneous application of heat and pressure eliminates internal voids and microporosity through a combination of plastic deformation, creep and diffusion bonding. The additive manufactured product will be significantly improved after this process.
additive manufactured products benefit from hot isostatic pressing
HIP is effective with almost all materials – including metals, ceramics and plastics. HIP repaired additive products have all of their porosity removed. These HIPped materials have improved mechanical properties such as fatigue strength and increased workability. The HIP process densifies, repairs and creates a clean uniform microstructure of the additive manufactured parts. Examination of HIPped parts by non destructive testing techniques show excellent results. In Powder Metallurgy, the HIP process can produce materials from metallic compositions that are difficult or impossible to forge or cast.
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Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) is a proven technology for heat treatment, consolidation of powder and removal of porosity from castings. HIP can be applied to metals, ceramics, composites and plastics.
With typical pressures from 400 to 2,070 bar (5,800 to 30,000 psi) and temperatures up to 2,000°C (3,632°F), HIP can achieve 100% of maximum theoretical density and improve the ductility and fatigue resistance of critical, high-performance materials. The components are often of net shape or near net shape configuration.
Common applications for hot isostatic pressing include defect healing of castings, consolidation of powder metal and ceramic parts or diffusion bonding. The technology is expanding into new applications such as very large castings as well as very large HIP clad P/M to solid or P/M to P/M wear components. Other areas are metal injection molded parts and large P/M parts to replace extended-delivery forgings.